I was awarded an MSc from the London School of Economics in 1994 and a PhD from Cardiff University, UK in 2000. I worked as a lecturer at Cardiff University from 1999-2001 and joined the University of Newcastle in 2001, where I am currently a senior lecturer in the School of Psychology. My research focuses on social group processes, including social identity, stereotyping, prejudice, and social exclusion. In the area of social identity, I have published several highly cited articles that defend social identity theory against its critics and call for more sophisticated tests of its core hypotheses. In the area of stereotyping, I have identified new processes that explain why people perceive members of social groups to be “all the same.” My recent research is based in the area of social exclusion. Here, I’ve identified personality variables that predict migrants’ social exclusion, I’ve shown that the need for self-esteem motivates people to exclude out-group members from their in-group, and I’ve published several papers investigating working-class students’ exclusion from social life at university.